Human enteric viruses autonomously shape inflammatory bowel disease phenotype through divergent innate immunomodulation

Fatemeh Adiliaghdam, Hajera Amatullah, Sreehaas Digumarthi, Tahnee L. Saunders, Raza Ur Rahman, Lai Ping Wong, Ruslan Sadreyev, Lindsay Droit, Jean Paquette, Philippe Goyette, John D. Rioux, Richard Hodin, Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya, Scott A. Handley, Kate L. Jeffrey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Altered enteric microorganisms in concert with host genetics shape inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes. However, insight is limited to bacteria and fungi. We found that eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages (collectively, the virome), enriched from non-IBD, noninflamed human colon resections, actively elicited atypical anti-inflammatory innate immune programs. Conversely, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease colon resection viromes provoked inflammation, which was successfully dampened by non-IBD viromes. The IBD colon tissue virome was perturbed, including an increase in the enterovirus B species of eukaryotic picornaviruses, not previously detected in fecal virome studies. Mice humanized with non-IBD colon tissue viromes were protected from intestinal inflammation, whereas IBD virome mice exhibited exacerbated inflammation in a nucleic acid sensing-dependent fashion. Furthermore, there were detrimental consequences for IBD patient-derived intestinal epithelial cells bearing loss-offunction mutations within virus sensor MDA5 when exposed to viromes. Our results demonstrate that innate recognition of IBD or non-IBD human viromes autonomously influences intestinal homeostasis and disease phenotypes. Thus, perturbations in the intestinal virome, or an altered ability to sense the virome due to genetic variation, contribute to the induction of IBD. Harnessing the virome may offer therapeutic and biomarker potential.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberabn6660
JournalScience immunology
Volume7
Issue number70
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

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