Enamel is the outermost covering of teeth and is the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body. The enamel matrix is composed of enamelin and amelogenin classes of protein. We have determined the chromosomal locations for the human and mouse amelogenin (AMEL) loci using Southern blot analyses of DNA from human, mouse, or somatic cell hybrids by hybridization to a characterized mouse amelogenin cDNA. We have determined that human AMEL sequences are located on the distal short arm of the X chromosome in the p22.1 → p22.3 region and near the centromere on the Y chromosome, possibly at the proximal long arm (Yq11) region. These chromosomal assignments are consistent with the hypothesis that perturbation of the amelogenin gene is involved in X-linked types of amelogenesis imperfecta, as well as with the Y-chromosomal locations for genes that participate in regulating tooth size and shape. Unlike the locus in humans, the mouse AMEL locus appears to be assigned solely to the X chromosome. Finally, together with the data on other X and Y chromosome sequences, these data for AMEL mapping support the notion of a pericentric inversion occurring in the human Y chromosome during primate evolution.