Anemia is a frequent complication of kidney disease. When severe, it causes symptoms that can be debilitating. The course of anemia tends to track the decline in kidney function, with prevalence increasing in more advanced disease. Although the most common cause is relative erythropoietin deficiency, other factors such as reduced iron availability contribute to the pathobiology. In this review, we use cases to explore the surprising complexity of decision-making in management of renal anemia.