How do strength, sensation, spasticity and joint individuation relate to the reaching deficits of people with chronic hemiparesis?

Kathleen M. Zackowski, A. W. Dromerick, S. A. Sahrmann, W. T. Thach, A. J. Bastian

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

142 Scopus citations


Hemiparetic subjects present with movement deficits including weakness, spasticity and an inability to isolate movement to one or a few joints. Voluntary attempts to move a single joint often result in excessive motion at adjacent joints. We investigated whether the inability to individuate joint movements is associated with deficits in functional reaching. Controls and hemiparetic subjects performed two different reaching movements and three individuated arm movements, all in the parasagittal plane. The reaching movements were a sagittal 'reach up' (shoulder flexion and elbow flexion) and 'reach out' (shoulder flexion and elbow extension). Joint individuation was assessed by getting each subject to perform an isolated flexion-extension movement at each of the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. In addition, we measured strength, muscle tone and sensation using standard clinical instruments. Hemiparetic subjects showed varying degrees of impairment when performing reaching movements and individuated joint movements. Reaching impairments (hand path curvature, velocity) were worse in the reach out versus the reach up condition. Typical joint individuation abnormalities were excessive flexion of joints that should have been held fixed during movement of the instructed joint. Hemiparetic subjects tended to produce concurrent flexion motions of shoulder and elbow joints when attempting any movement, one explanation for why they were better at the 'reach up' than the 'reach out' task. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that impaired joint individuation explained most of the variance in the reach path curvature and end point error; strength explained most of the variance in reaching velocity. Sensation also contributed significantly, but spasticity and strength were not significant in the model. We conclude that the deficit in joint individuation reflects a fundamental motor control problem that largely explains some aspects of voluntary reaching deficits of hemiparetic subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1035-1046
Number of pages12
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2004


  • Fractionation
  • Hemiparesis
  • Movement
  • Stroke
  • Upper extremity


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