Rationale: Protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor. Deletion of PKCζ in experimental cancer models has been shown to increase tumor growth. However, the mechanisms of PKCζ down-regulation in cancerous cells have not been previously described. Objectives: To determine the molecular mechanisms that lead to decreased PKCζ expression and thus increased survival in cancer cells and tumor growth. Methods: The levels of expression of heme-oxidized IRP2 ubiquitin ligase 1L (HOIL-1L), HOIL-1 -interacting protein (HOIP), Shank-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN), and PKCζ were analyzed by Western blot and/or quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in different cell lines. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments were used to demonstrate the interaction between HOIL-1L and PKCζ. Ubiquitination was measured in an in vitro ubiquitination assay and by Western blot with specific antibodies. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) was determined by gain/loss-of-function experiments. The effect of HOIL-1L expression on cell death was investigated using RNA interference approaches in vitro and on tumor growth in mice models. Increased HOIL-1L and decreased PKCζ expression was assessed in lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma multiforme and documented in several other cancer types by oncogenomic analysis. Measurements and Main Results: Hypoxia is a hallmark of rapidly growing solid tumors.We found that during hypoxia, PKCζ is ubiquitinated and degraded via the ubiquitin ligase HOIL-1L, a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). In vitro ubiquitination assays indicate that HOIL-1L ubiquitinates PKCζ at Lys-48, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. In a xenograft tumormodel and lung cancermodel, we found that silencing of HOIL-1L increased the abundance of PKCζ and decreased the size of tumors, suggesting that lower levels of HOIL-1L promote survival. Indeed, mRNA transcript levels of HOIL-1L were elevated in tumor of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and in a lung adenocarcinoma tissue microarray the levels of HOIL-1L were associated with high-grade tumors. Moreover, we found that HOIL-1L expression was regulated by HIFs. Interestingly, the actions of HOIL-1L were independent of LUBAC. Conclusions: These data provide first evidence of a mechanism of cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia where HIFs regulate HOIL-1L, which targets PKCζ for degradation to promote tumor survival. We provided a proof of concept that silencing of HOIL-1L impairs lung tumor growth and that HOIL-1L expression predicts survival rate in cancer patients suggesting that HOIL-1L is an attractive target for cancer therapy.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine|
|State||Published - Sep 15 2014|
- E3 ligase
- Hypoxia-inducible factors
- Linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex