Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease of immune dysregulation and skin barrier dysfunction with a relapsing, remitting course and has been associated with several different genetic risk variants. HLA represent a highly variable set of genes that code for cell surface protein molecules involved in the Ag-specific immune response, including the regulation or functioning of T cells, NK cells, and APCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between HLA class I polymorphisms and the progression of AD over time. We evaluated the associations of AD symptoms and HLA class I polymorphisms based on high-resolution two-field typing in a longitudinal cohort of children with AD (up to 10 y of follow-up). Seven hundred and ninety-two children were evaluated every 6 mo, resulting in 12,752 AD evaluations. Using generalized estimating equations and corrected p values, B*44:02 was found to be associated with AD remission (1.83 [1.35, 2.47]; p = 0.0015). The HLA-B residues at position 116 (D-aspartate) and 80 (T-threonine) were associated with remission (1.42 [1.13, 1.76], p = 0.003; corrected p =0.028) and (1.45 [1.17, 1.80], p = 0.0008; corrected p = 0.0024), respectively. B80T is a killer-cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) site. Our findings reveal that two axes of immune response (T cell and NK cell) may influence disease progression. Identifying binding pocket changes in addition to other factors (e.g., allergens) that increase the risk or severity of AD can improve our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms associated with AD and may lead to personalized therapies for improving patient care.