Shortly after World War II in 1946, the U.S. Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act that transferred nuclear weapon development and nuclear power management to civilian, rather than military control. The majority of the efforts were directed toward the discovery of less expensive and more available sources of radioisotopes, the development of imaging instrumentation, and the medical assessment of the techniques. Optical imaging quickly advanced from a preclinical stage to use in clinical applications. Technically, microbubbles are vehicles that exceed the size of nanoparticles with a diameter in the 1-10μm range. By the middle of the 1970s, liposomes have been the most advanced type of nanoparticles and presented an excellent scaffold for the incorporation of different types of molecules including multiple targeting moieties from small molecules to antibodies. New contrast agents became commercialized and rapidly adopted by clinics, which further accelerated the search for new contrast agents including nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNanotechnology for Biomedical Imaging and Diagnostics
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Nanoparticle Design to Clinical Applications
Number of pages23
ISBN (Electronic)9781118873151
ISBN (Print)9781118121184
StatePublished - Jan 30 2015


  • Liposomes
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nuclear imaging techniques
  • Optical imaging
  • Ultrasound microbubble contrast agents


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