Diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) models diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals as a combination of discrete anisotropic diffusion tensors and a spectrum of isotropic diffusion tensors. Here, we report the histopathological correlates of DBSI in the biopsied brain tissue of a patient with an inflammatory demyelinating lesion typical of multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased radial diffusivity (marker of demyelination), decreased fiber fraction (apparent axonal density), elevated nonrestricted isotropic fraction (marker of vasogenic edema), but unchanged axial diffusivity (marker of integrity of residual axons) seen in the lesion appeared consistent with histopathological findings of inflammatory demyelination with relative axonal sparing. Our report supports the application of DBSI as a biomarker in human studies of MS.
- Multiple sclerosis
- diffusion basis spectrum imaging