Histocompatibility Testing for Xenotransplantation

Joseph M. Ladowski, Gregory R. Martens

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Allotransplantation relied on two major advances in the field to overcome the host’s innate and adaptive immune system: sufficient immunosuppression and meticulous selection of donor-recipient pairs to increase the likelihood of organ survival. Given the field’s thorough evaluation and experimentation demonstrating that the clinically available, FDA-approved immunosuppression will likely be sufficient to control the human anti-pig immune response, the focus turns to histocompatibility and xenoantigen study. The biochemical composition of the antigens found in human mirrors those found in a pig, consisting of either glycan or proteinaceous backbones, but the available reagents and tools to screen patients for xenoantibodies are limited compared to the allotransplant field. It is in this context we review the known xenoantigens and available histocompatibility techniques and reagents that will likely be used to select the patients for the first clinical trial.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationClinical Xenotransplantation
Subtitle of host publicationPathways and Progress in the Transplantation of Organs and Tissues Between Species
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783030491277
ISBN (Print)9783030491260
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Histocompatibility
  • Human leukocyte antigens
  • Pig, genetically engineered
  • Swine leukocyte antigens
  • Xenotransplantation


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