Background: Histiocytic sarcoma is an exceedingly rare malignant neoplasm composed of cells with a monocyte/macrophage phenotype. In the current nosology of histiocytic neoplasms, histiocytic sarcoma is separate from indeterminate cell histiocytosis, a generally benign disorder characterized by proliferation of a CD1a+ and S-100+ population of cells lacking Birbeck granules usually limited to the skin. Methods: We present a case of histiocytic sarcoma in a 64-year-old man presenting as a peritonsillar mass and secondarily involving the skin. Results: The malignant cells in the extracutaneous foci of disease expressed macrophage-associated antigens including S-100 but were CD1a-. The malignant cells in the skin coexpressed CD1a and S-100 but lacked ultrastructural features of Langerhans cells, findings indicative of indeterminate cells. Conclusions: We discuss the clinical and histopathologic differential diagnosis in association with prior reported cases of histiocytic sarcoma, particularly in cases involving the skin and cases expressing the Langerhans cell-associated antigen CD1a.