Purpose To describe a new complication and retrospectively identify the incidence and risk factors for hip chondrolysis and femoral head osteonecrosis associated with percutaneous cryoablation of periacetabular malignancies.
Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, 45 patients with a total of 113 musculoskeletal lesions were treated by percutaneous image-guided cryoablation between May 2008 and June 2013. Included in the treated population were 10 patients with a total of 12 periacetabular lesions. Clinical and imaging follow-up of at least 2 months was reviewed for evidence of femoral head osteonecrosis or hip chondrolysis. Parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were used to assess patient demographics and treatment technique and parameters on the development of hip chondrolysis/femoral head osteonecrosis.
Results Hip chondrolysis/femoral head osteonecrosis developed in 40% of patients (four of 10) and in 33% of treated periacetabular lesions (four of 12). All patients in whom chondrolysis/osteonecrosis developed were women. Needle proximity to the acetabulum (< 5 mm) was a significant predictor of chondrolysis/osteonecrosis development (P =.01). Three of the four patients in whom chondrolysis/osteonecrosis developed have undergone total joint replacement.
Conclusions Periacetabular cryoablation can result in transarticular extension of the ablation zone, which may result in the development of hip chondrolysis and femoral head osteonecrosis. The proximity of the cryoablation probe to the acetabulum is a significant risk factor in the development of this complication.