Higher Dose Oral Fluconazole for the Treatment of AIDS-related Cryptococcal Meningitis (HIFLAC)—report of A5225, a multicentre, phase I/II, two-stage, dose-finding, safety, tolerability and efficacy randomised, amphotericin B-controlled trial of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group

ACTG A5225 Team

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background The WHO recommended 1200mg/day of fluconazole (FCZ) in the induction phase of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV prior to 2018 in regions where amphotericin-B (AMB) was unavailable. A 2-stage AMB-controlled, dose-escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose and the safety/efficacy of an induction-consolidation strategy of higher doses FCZ (1200mg-2000mg/day), adjusted for weight and renal function (eGFR)in adults with CM was undertaken. Methods In Stage-1, three induction doses of FCZ (1200mg/day, 1600mg/day and 2000mg/day) were tested in sequential cohortsand compared with AMB in a 3:1 ratio. A particular dose was not tested in Stage 2 if there were significant predetermined safety or efficacy concerns. In Stage-2, the 1200mg dose was excluded per protocol because of increased mortality, and participants were randomised to 1600mg, 2000mg FCZ or AMB in a 1:1:1 ratio. Findings One hundred and sixty eight participants were enrolled with 48, 50, and 48 in the AMB, 1600mg and 2000mg cohorts. The Kaplan Meier proportion for mortality (90% CI) at 10 and 24 weeks for AMB was 17% (10, 29) and 24% (15, 37), compared to 20% (12, 32) and 30% (20, 43) for 1600mg, and 33% (23, 46) and 38% (27, 51) for 2000mg/day FCZ. With the exception of a higher incidence of gastrointestinal side effects in the 2000mg cohort, both induction doses of FCZ were safe and well tolerated. There were no life-threatening changes in electrocardiogram QTc which were similar across all doses of FCZ and AMB. The median (IQR) change in log10 cryptoccal colony forming units (CFU) from week 0 to week 2 was -8(-4.1,-1.9) for AMB; -2.5(-4.0, -1.4) for 1600mg FCZ and -8 (-3.2, -1.0) for 2000mg FCZ. The proportion (90% CI) CSF CM negative at 10 weeks was 81%(71,90) for AMB; 56%(45,69) for 1600mg FCZ and 60%(49,73) for 2000mg FCZ. Interpretation Induction phase weight and renal-adjusted doses of 1600mg and 2000mg/day FCZ for CM were safe and well tolerated except for increased GI side effects in the 2000mg/day dose, and had similar times to achieve CSF sterilization, but took significantly longer than AMB. The WHO recommended 1200mg FCZ was associated with a high mortality. While not statistically significant, mortality was numerically lower in the AMB compared to 1600mg and 2000mg FCZ These data make a case for a phase 3 study of higher doses of FZC.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0281580
JournalPloS one
Volume18
Issue number2 February
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023

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