High Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Substantial Bone Loss over 4 Years among HIV-Infected Persons in the Era of Modern Antiretroviral Therapy

Gerome V. Escota, Kristin Mondy, Tim Bush, Lois Conley, John T. Brooks, Nur Önen, Pragna Patel, Erna Milunka Kojic, Keith Henry, John Hammer, K. C. Wood, Kenneth A. Lichtenstein, Edgar T. Overton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

HIV-infected persons are living longer on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) but experiencing more comorbidities including low bone mineral density (BMD). Using data from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study), we determined the prevalence of low BMD (T-score below one standard deviation of the reference mean) and compared it with matched controls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also assessed 4-year longitudinal BMD changes among participants virologically suppressed on cART. Of 653 participants included in this analysis (77% male, 29% black, median age 41 years, median CD4+ cell count 464 cells/mm3, 89% with HIV RNA <400 copies/ml), 51% and 10% had baseline osteopenia and osteoporosis, respectively. Low BMD at the femoral neck was significantly more prevalent than for the NHANES controls (47% versus 29%, p<0.001). Lower body mass index, nonwhite race, longer tenofovir exposure, older age, being unemployed or retired, and lower apolipoprotein E were independently associated with baseline osteoporosis. Among 170 participants virologically suppressed on cART and with longitudinal BMD data, 31% experienced substantial bone loss (≥5% BMD decline from baseline) over 4 years. Female sex, current smoking, and longer stavudine use were more common among participants who had substantial bone loss, although these variables failed to reach statistical significance. Low BMD was highly prevalent among HIV-infected persons. One-third of participants experienced substantial bone loss despite cART, suggesting the need for monitoring and potential clinical interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-67
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS research and human retroviruses
Volume32
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'High Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Substantial Bone Loss over 4 Years among HIV-Infected Persons in the Era of Modern Antiretroviral Therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this