Background Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) are frequently used in acute lung injury (ALI) refractory to conventional ventilation. Our aim was to describe our experience with APRV and HFOV in refractory pediatric ALI, and to identify factors associated with survival. Methods We analyzed 104 patients with hypoxemia refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to either APRV or HFOV. Demographics, oxygenation index (OI), and PaO2/FiO2 (PF ratio) were recorded before transition to either mode of nonconventional ventilation (NCV) and for every 12-hr after transition. Results Relative to APRV, patients on HFOV were younger and had more significant lung disease evidenced by higher OI (28.5 [18.6, 36.2] vs. 21.0 [15.5, 30.0], P-=-0.008), lower PF ratios (73 [59,94] vs. 99 [76,131], P-=-0.002), and more frequent use of inhaled nitric oxide. In univariate analysis, HFOV was associated with more frequent neuromuscular blockade. Forty-one of 104 patients died on NCV (39.4%). Survivors demonstrated improvement in OI 24-hr after transition to NCV, whereas non-survivors did not (12.9 [8.9, 20.9] vs. 28.1 [17.6, 37.1], P-<-0.001). After controlling for immunocompromised status, number of vasopressors, and OI before transition, mode of NCV was not associated with mortality. Conclusions In a heterogeneous PICU population with hypoxemia refractory to conventional ventilation transitioned to NCV, improvement in oxygenation at 24-hr was associated with survival. Immunocompromised status, number of vasopressor infusions, and the OI before transition to NCV were independently associated with survival.
- acute lung injury
- acute respiratory distress syndrome
- airway pressure release ventilation
- high frequency oscillatory ventilation
- mechanical ventilation