Complement C3 is involved in various protective and regulatory mechanisms of immune system. Recently it was established that C3 expression is regulated by nuclear receptors. Hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a nuclear receptor critical for hepatic development and metabolism. We have shown that HNF4α is a positive regulator of C3 gene expression, realizing its effects through binding to two HNF4-response elements within the C3 promoter in HepG2 cells. TNFα is a well established positive regulator of C3 expression in hepatocytes during acute phase of inflammation. TNFα decreases the amount of HNF4α protein in HepG2 cells through NF-κB and MEK1/2 pathways thereby leading to a decrease in HNF4α bound to the C3 promoter. TNFα and HNF4α act in a synergetic way resulting in the potent activation of C3 transcription. These results suggest a novel mechanism of C3 regulation during acute phase response in HepG2 cells and display the mechanism of interaction of TNFα-induced pathways and HNF4α in transcriptional regulation of C3 gene.
- Acute phase response
- Complement C3