Study objective: Rapid hemostasis is crucial in controlling severe extremity hemorrhage. Our objective is to evaluate the hemostatic efficacy of a newly modified amylopectin powder in a model of severe extremity arterial hemorrhage. Methods: Anesthetized pigs underwent severe, reproducible femoral artery injuries. Animals were randomized (nonblinded) to either modified amylopectin powder (n=10) or standard gauze application (n=6). Each hemostatic agent was applied through a pool of blood with manual compression for 3-minute intervals until hemostasis was achieved. Fluid resuscitation was infused as necessary to reestablish a mean arterial pressure within at least 80% of the preinjury mean arterial pressure if possible. The primary measured outcome was total blood loss. Secondary endpoints were survival, time to hemostasis, resuscitation mean arterial pressure, and resuscitation volume. Results: Pretreatment blood losses were similar in both groups. Median (absolute average deviation of the median) posttreatment blood loss was significantly less in the modified amylopectin powder group than in the gauze group, 275 (108) mL versus 1,312 (171) mL. Resuscitation mean arterial pressure at 180 minutes after injury was 68% of preinjury mean arterial pressure in the modified amylopectin powder group and undetectable in all control animals. Fluid volume required for resuscitation was 1,962 (258) mL in the modified amylopectin powder group and 2,875 (150) mL in the gauze group. Time to hemostasis was 9.0 (2.1) minutes in the modified amylopectin powder group. Hemostasis was not achieved in any animal in the gauze group. Survival was 100% in the modified amylopectin powder group, whereas no animals survived in the gauze group. Conclusion: Modified amylopectin powder demonstrates the ability to control major vascular bleeding in a lethal arterial injury model during a 3-hour period.