Purpose: To evaluate the overall prognosis of post-stem cell transplant inpatients who required continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) for hematuria. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of adult stem cell transplant recipients who received CBI for de novo hemorrhagic cystitis as inpatients on the bone marrow transplant service at Washington University from 2011-2013. Patients who had a history of genitourinary malignancy and/or recent surgical urologic intervention were excluded. Multiple variables were examined for association with death. Results: Thirty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 48 years (23-65). Common malignancies included acute myelogenous leukemia (17/33, 57%), acute lymphocytic leukemia (3/33, 10%), and peripheral T cell lymphoma (3/33, 10%). Median time from stem cell transplant to need for CBI was 2.5 months (0 days-6.6 years). All patients had previously undergone chemotherapy (33/33, 100%) and 14 had undergone prior radiation therapy (14/33, 42%). Twenty-eight patients had an infectious disease (28/33, 85%), most commonly BK viremia (19/33, 58%), cytomegalovirus viremia (17/33, 51%), and bacterial urinary tract infection (8/33, 24%). Twenty-two patients expired during the same admission as CBI treatment (22/33 or 67% of total patients, 22/28 or 79% of deaths), with a 30-day mortality of 52% and a 90-day mortality of 73% from the start of CBI. Conclusions: Hemorrhagic cystitis requiring CBI is a symptom of severe systemic disease in stem cell transplant patients. The need for CBI administration may be a marker for mortality risk from a variety of systemic insults, rather than directly attributable to the hematuria.
- Bone marrow transplantation
- Stem cell transplantation