Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass: The effect on anti-Xa and anti-IIa heparin activity

G. J. Despotis, V. Levine, K. S. Filos, D. Joiner-Maier, J. H. Joist

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13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Previous studies have demonstrated that heparin concentrations during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may vary considerably, which may be related to variability in redistribution, cellular and plasma protein binding, and clearance of heparin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hemofiltration removes lower molecular weight fractions of heparin from plasma and thus contributes to variability of blood levels of heparin. Twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB were enrolled in this study after informed consent was obtained. The study was subdivided into two phases. The first 10 patients were enrolled in Phase I which was designed to determine whether hemofiltration removes lower molecular weight fractions of heparin from blood. Blood specimens obtained from the inflow line and outflow lines of the hemofiltration unit were used to measure complete blood counts (CBC) and plasma heparin activity by anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays. Phase II was designed to evaluate the effect of hemofiltration on circulating plasma heparin activity. In Phase II, blood specimens were obtained from 10 patients via the arterial cannula of the extracorporeal circuit prior to and after hemofiltration for measurements of CBCs, anfi-Xa plasma heparin, as well as whole blood heparin concentration using an automated protamine titration assay (Hepcon® instrument, Medtronic Inc., Parker, CO). Ultrafiltrate and reservoir volumes were measured in both phases of the study. Hemofiltration did not remove lower (anfi-Xa measurable) molecular weight heparin, but it resulted in a considerable increase in heparin activity in the outflow line, as measured by both anti-Xa and anti-IIa assays. The plasma anti-Xa heparin activity obtained after hemofiltration (5 ± 1.8 U/mL) was substantially (P = 0.003) greater than heparin activity obtained prior to hemofiltration (3.9 ± 1.7 U/mL). The increase in heparin activity with hemofiltration was directly related to ultrafiltrate volume (r = 0.63, P < 0.0001) and hematocrit (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001). Hemofiltration increases heparin concentration and may contribute to variability in heparin activity during CPB. Point-of-care heparin concentration methods would allow identification of the anticipated rise in heparin concentration, with the apparent clinical implication of a reduced need for supplemental heparin to maintain a target whole blood heparin concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-483
Number of pages5
JournalAnesthesia and analgesia
Volume84
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 1997

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