Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously regenerate the hematologic system, yet few genes regulating this process have been defined. To identify candidate factors involved in differentiation and self-renewal, we have generated an expression database of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiated progeny, including erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, NK cells, activated and naive T cells, and B cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed HSCs were more transcriptionally active than their progeny and shared a common activation mechanism with T cells. Each cell type also displayed unique biases in the regulation of particular genetic pathways, with Wnt signaling particularly enhanced in HSCs. We identified ∼100-400 genes uniquely expressed in each cell type, termed lineage "fingerprints." In overexpression studies, two of these genes, Zfp105 from the NK cell lineage, and Ets2 from the monocyte lineage, were able to significantly influence differentiation toward their respective lineages, demonstrating the utility of the fingerprints for identifying genes that regulate differentiation.