Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the sole curative option for congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA), a rare type of hemolytic anemia characterized by anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and secondary hemochromatosis. In this retrospective multicenter study, we report the outcomes of children with CDA who underwent HCT at participating Pediatric Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Consortium centers. Clinical information on HCT and associated outcomes was collected retrospectively using a common questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and appropriate analysis. Eighteen patients with CDA who underwent allogeneic HCT between 2002 and 2020 were identified. The majority of patients (n = 13) had CDA type II, and the remainder had either CDA type I (n = 2) or CDA of unknown type (n = 3). Mutations were identified in 7 patients (39%), including SEC23B in 5, GATA1 in 1, and abnormality of chromosome 20 in 1. Thirteen patients had evidence of iron overload pre-HCT and received chelation therapy for a median duration of 10 months (range, 2 months to 17 years) pre-HCT. The median age at the time of HCT was 5.5 years (range, 0.7 to 26 years). Donors were HLA-matched (sibling, 4; unrelated, 10) and mismatched (haploidentical, 1; unrelated, 3). Graft sources were bone marrow in 15 patients, umbilical cord blood in 2 patients, or both in 1 patient. Conditioning included busulfan-based myeloablative (67%), fludarabine-based reduced-intensity (27%), or nonmyeloablative (6%) regimens. Five patients developed veno-occlusive disease, and 4 had viral reactivation. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 33%, and that of chronic GVHD was 22%. Four patients (22%) experienced graft failure; all engrafted following either a second HCT (n = 2) or third HCT (n = 2) but sustained considerable morbidities (3 GVHD, 1 death, 2 viral reactivation). With a median follow-up of 3.2 years (range, 0.6 to 14 years)), the 2-year overall survival, event-free survival (EFS), and GVHD-free EFS were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 100%), 65% (95% CI, 45% to 92%), and 60% (95% CI, 40% to 88%), respectively. Univariate analysis did not identify any patient- or transplantation-related variables impacting outcomes. Our study indicates that HCT can be curative for patients with CDA. Strategies such as aggressive chelation, use of preconditioning therapy, and early HCT in the presence of a suitable donor before comorbidities occur are needed to improve engraftment without increasing the risk for toxicity and mortality.
- Stem cell transplantation