Pretransplant remission status in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is 1 of the most important factors determining their outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Most patients are in complete remission with full hematologic recovery (CR) before undergoing allo-HCT. However, some patients achieve CR without recovery of platelet count (CRp) or a morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS), defined as meeting all CR criteria without recovery of both neutrophil and platelet counts. Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding transplant outcomes in AML patients achieving MLFS after chemotherapy. To address this question, we evaluated transplant outcomes in 270 AML patients who received 6/6 HLA-matched sibling or 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation at a single institution between 2006 and 2013. Of our 270 patients, 206 were in CR, 45 were in CRp, and 19 were in MLFS before allo-HCT. Patients in CR, CRp, or MLFS had similar 3-year overall survival rates (49%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; P= 88) and 3-year event-free survival rates (45%, 36%, and 40%, respectively; P= 53). However, the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher in patients in MLFS compared with those in CR (58% versus 22%, P=.0004), whereas the cumulative incidence of relapse in patients in MLFS was significantly lower compared with those in CR (11% versus 36%, P=.03). Our results suggest that survival outcomes in AML patients are not influenced by degree of hematologic recovery before allo-HCT.
- Complete remission
- Hematologic recovery
- Morphologic leukemia-free state
- Pretransplantation remission status