There has been growing research interest in developing methodology to evaluate healthcare centers' performance with respect to patient outcomes. Conventional assessments can be conducted using fixed or random effects models, as seen in provider profiling. We propose a new method, using fusion penalty to cluster healthcare centers with respect to a survival outcome. Without any prior knowledge of the grouping information, the new method provides a desirable data-driven approach for automatically clustering healthcare centers into distinct groups based on their performance. An efficient alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is developed to implement the proposed method. The validity of our approach is demonstrated through simulation studies, and its practical application is illustrated by analyzing data from the national kidney transplant registry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3685-3698
Number of pages14
JournalStatistics in medicine
Issue number20
StatePublished - Sep 10 2023


  • fixed effects
  • fusion penalty
  • latent class
  • provider profiling
  • random effects


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