PURPOSE OF REVIEW Causes of health disparities in Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) in the United States are multifactorial. This article contextualizes health disparities as they relate to the neurodegenerative processes of ADRD. RECENT FINDINGS Older adults' life expectancy has increased such that a 65-year-old is expected to live 19 or more years and an 85-year-old can expect to live, on average, 6 to 7 years longer. Individuals of certain ethnoracial groups (Black, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander) may be at a higher risk of incident ADRD compared to non-Hispanic/Latino White people. These differences in a higher risk of ADRD across ethnoracial groups persist despite no statistically significant differences in the rate of cognitive decline over time. The intersectionality of social determinants of health, experiences with discrimination and oppression, and access to care are related to the issue of justice and the risk for and expression of ADRD. The theoretical frameworks of various health disparities provide organized approaches to tracking the progression of health disparities for diverse patients. SUMMARY ADRD health disparities are complex. Neurologists and their care teams must consider the main reasons for clinical ADRD evaluations of members of ethnoracial groups and the factors that may impact patient adherence and compliance with diagnostic and management recommendations.