Health Care Transition from Pediatric- to Adult-Focused Care in X-linked Hypophosphatemia: Expert Consensus

Kathryn Dahir, Ruban Dhaliwal, Jill Simmons, Erik A. Imel, Gary S. Gottesman, John D. Mahan, Gnanagurudasan Prakasam, Allison I. Hoch, Prameela Ramesan, Maria Díaz-González De Ferris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Context: X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is an inherited skeletal disorder that can lead to lifelong deleterious musculoskeletal and functional consequences. Although often perceived as a childhood condition, children and adults both experience the negative effects of XLH. Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) benefit from effective health care transition (HCT) preparation to support the transfer from pediatric- to adult-focused care. Whereas transition timelines, milestones, and educational tools exist for some chronic conditions, they do not meet the unique needs of patients with XLH. Evidence Acquisition: To produce the first expert recommendations on HCT preparation for AYAs with XLH developed by clinical care investigators and transition experts, a formal literature search was conducted and discussed in an advisory board meeting in July 2020. A modified Delphi method was used to refine expert opinion and facilitate a consensus position. Evidence Synthesis: We identified the need for psychosocial and access-related resources for disease education, genetic counseling, family planning, and AYA emancipation from caregiver-directed care. Additionally, we recognized that it is necessary to facilitate communication with patients through channels familiar and accessible to AYAs and teach patients to advocate for their health care/access to specialists. Conclusion: Clear HCT preparation guidelines and treatment-related goals are defined. Individualized timelines and practical strategies for HCT preparation are proposed to optimize health outcomes resulting from continuous clinical care throughout the patient lifecycle. We provide an expert consensus statement describing a tailored HCT preparation program specifically for AYAs with XLH to aid in the effective transfer from pediatric- to adult-focused health care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-613
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022


  • X-linked hypophosphatemia
  • adolescent care
  • expert opinion consensus
  • health care transition
  • metabolic bone disorders
  • transition preparation


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