Molecular profiling facilitates opportunities for personalization of breast cancer management. Increasing availability of germline and somatic sequencing provides insight into predictors of treatment efficacy and treatment tolerance of patients with breast cancer. The presence of pathologic mutations can guide patient selection for breast conserving surgery vs mastectomy. However, our understanding of the interplay between genetic variants and radiotherapy responses and side effects remains incomplete. Here we review the available data on germline mutations and polymorphisms in breast cancer. We also outline their association with treatment tolerance, locoregional outcomes, and ongoing efforts to transform these insights into more effective treatment strategies in combination with radiotherapy.