Haplotype-Resolved, Chromosome-Level Assembly of White Clover (Trifolium repens L., Fabaceae)

James S. Santangelo, Paul Battlay, Brandon T. Hendrickson, Wen Hsi Kuo, Kenneth M. Olsen, Nicholas J. Kooyers, Marc T.J. Johnson, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Rob W. Ness

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


White clover (Trifolium repens L.; Fabaceae) is an important forage and cover crop in agricultural pastures around the world and is increasingly used in evolutionary ecology and genetics to understand the genetic basis of adaptation. Historically, improvements in white clover breeding practices and assessments of genetic variation in nature have been hampered by a lack of high-quality genomic resources for this species, owing in part to its high heterozygosity and allotetraploid hybrid origin. Here, we use PacBio HiFi and chromosome conformation capture (Omni-C) technologies to generate a chromosome-level, haplotype-resolved genome assembly for white clover totaling 998 Mbp (scaffold N50 = 59.3 Mbp) and 1 Gbp (scaffold N50 = 58.6 Mbp) for haplotypes 1 and 2, respectively, with each haplotype arranged into 16 chromosomes (8 per subgenome). We additionally provide a functionally annotated haploid mapping assembly (968 Mbp, scaffold N50 = 59.9 Mbp), which drastically improves on the existing reference assembly in both contiguity and assembly accuracy. We annotated 78,174 protein-coding genes, resulting in protein BUSCO completeness scores of 99.6% and 99.3% against the embryophyta_odb10 and fabales_odb10 lineage datasets, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberevad146
JournalGenome Biology and Evolution
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2023


  • allotetraploid
  • genome assembly
  • haplotype-resolved
  • legume
  • polyploidy


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