Decades of research have identified genetic factors and biochemical pathways involved in neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). We present evidence for the following eight hallmarks of NDD: pathological protein aggregation, synaptic and neuronal network dysfunction, aberrant proteostasis, cytoskeletal abnormalities, altered energy homeostasis, DNA and RNA defects, inflammation, and neuronal cell death. We describe the hallmarks, their biomarkers, and their interactions as a framework to study NDDs using a holistic approach. The framework can serve as a basis for defining pathogenic mechanisms, categorizing different NDDs based on their primary hallmarks, stratifying patients within a specific NDD, and designing multi-targeted, personalized therapies to effectively halt NDDs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)693-714
Number of pages22
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 16 2023


  • DNA and RNA defects
  • cytoskeletal defects
  • energy homeostasis
  • hallmarks
  • inflammation
  • neurodegeneration
  • neurodegenerative disease
  • protein aggregation
  • proteostasis
  • synaptic and neuronal network dysfunction


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