Haemorrhagic cystitis: a review of management strategies and emerging treatments

Kevin D. Li, Charles P. Jones, Nizar Hakam, Bradley A. Erickson, Alex J. Vanni, Michael B. Chancellor, Benjamin N. Breyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is characterised by persistent haematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood but thought to be related to acrolein toxicity following chemotherapy or fibrosis/vascular remodelling after radiotherapy. There is no standard of care for patients with HC, although existing strategies including fulguration, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, botulinum toxin A, and other intravesical therapies have demonstrated short-term efficacy in cohort studies. Novel agents including liposomal tacrolimus are promising targets for further research. This review summarises the incidence and pathogenesis of HC as well as current evidence supporting its different management strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)631-637
Number of pages7
JournalBJU international
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2023


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