Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is characterised by persistent haematuria and lower urinary tract symptoms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood but thought to be related to acrolein toxicity following chemotherapy or fibrosis/vascular remodelling after radiotherapy. There is no standard of care for patients with HC, although existing strategies including fulguration, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, botulinum toxin A, and other intravesical therapies have demonstrated short-term efficacy in cohort studies. Novel agents including liposomal tacrolimus are promising targets for further research. This review summarises the incidence and pathogenesis of HC as well as current evidence supporting its different management strategies.