Late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections remain challenges in neonatology. Hand hygiene, line care, and judicious use of indwelling lines are welcome interventions, but might not reduce the incidence of late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections from bacteria originating in the gut. Accumulating data suggest that many pathogens causing late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections are of gut origin, including Gram-positive cocci. In addition to the host-canonical paradigm (i.e., all bacteria have equal risk of invasion and bloodstream infections are functions of variable infant susceptibility), we should now consider bacteria-canonical paradigms, whereby late-onset neonatal bloodstream infection is a function of colonization with a specific subset of bacteria with exceptional invasive potential. In either event, we can no longer be content to reactively approach late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections; instead we need to reduce the occurrences of these infections by broadening our scope of effort beyond line care, and determine the pre-invasive habitat of these pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)388-393
Number of pages6
JournalSeminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Gram-positive bacteria
  • Gut microbes
  • Late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections


Dive into the research topics of 'Gut bacteria and late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections in preterm infants'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this