Guide for starting or optimizing a 3D printing clinical service

Aravinda Ganapathy, David Chen, Anusha Elumalai, Brian Albers, Karthik Tappa, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka, Mark J. Hoegger, David H. Ballard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional (3D) printing has applications in many fields and has gained substantial traction in medicine as a modality to transform two-dimensional scans into three-dimensional renderings. Patient-specific 3D printed models have direct patient care uses in surgical and procedural specialties, allowing for increased precision and accuracy in developing treatment plans and guiding surgeries. Medical applications include surgical planning, surgical guides, patient and trainee education, and implant fabrication. 3D printing workflow for a laboratory or clinical service that produces anatomic models and guides includes optimizing imaging acquisition and post-processing, segmenting the imaging, and printing the model. Quality assurance considerations include supervising medical imaging expert radiologists' guidance and self-implementing in-house quality control programs. The purpose of this review is to provide a workflow and guide for starting or optimizing laboratories and clinical services that 3D-print anatomic models or guides for clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-52
Number of pages12
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • 3D printed anatomic guides
  • 3D printed anatomic models
  • 3D printing
  • 3D printing in medicine
  • 3D printing radiology
  • 3D printing reimbursement


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