Guardians of precision: advancing radiation protection, safety, and quality systems in nuclear medicine

Francesco Giammarile, Peter Knoll, Jolanta Kunikowska, Diana Paez, Enrique Estrada Lobato, Miriam Mikhail-Lette, Richard Wahl, Ola Holmberg, May Abdel-Wahab, Andrew M. Scott, Roberto C. Delgado Bolton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: In the rapidly evolving field of nuclear medicine, the paramount importance of radiation protection, safety, and quality systems cannot be overstated. This document provides a comprehensive analysis of the intricate regulatory frameworks and guidelines, meticulously crafted and updated by national and international regulatory bodies to ensure the utmost safety and efficiency in the practice of nuclear medicine. Methods: We explore the dynamic nature of these regulations, emphasizing their adaptability in accommodating technological advancements and the integration of nuclear medicine with other medical and scientific disciplines. Results: Audits, both internal and external, are spotlighted for their pivotal role in assessing and ensuring compliance with established standards, promoting a culture of continuous improvement and excellence. We delve into the significant contributions of entities like the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and relevant professional societies in offering universally applicable guidelines that amalgamate the latest in scientific research, ethical considerations, and practical applicability. Conclusions: The document underscores the essence of international collaborations in pooling expertise, resources, and insights, fostering a global community of practice where knowledge and innovations are shared. Readers will gain an in-depth understanding of the practical applications, challenges, and opportunities presented by these regulatory frameworks and audit processes. The ultimate goal is to inspire and inform ongoing efforts to enhance safety, quality, and effectiveness in nuclear medicine globally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1498-1505
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Issue number6
StatePublished - May 2024


  • National and international regulations
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Quality assurance
  • Radiation protection
  • Theranostics guidelines


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