GRAPES: Trivia game increases sickle cell disease knowledge in patients and providers and mitigates healthcare biases

Amy Ouyang, Manasa Gadiraju, Veda Gadiraju, Landon Power, Vinitha Gadiraju, Gloria Liu, Kristin P. Guilliams, Michael M. Binkley, Sherif M. Badawy, Melanie E. Fields

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) endure healthcare biases that are partially due to a lack of disease-specific education among healthcare providers. Furthermore, there is a paucity of age-appropriate health education materials for patients with SCD. To address this gap, we created the GRAPES tool (Game to Raise Awareness for Patient/Provider/Public Education of SCD; and hypothesized that utilization of the GRAPES tool will improve patient and provider SCD knowledge and mitigate healthcare bias. Procedure: The GRAPES tool is an online, single-player trivia game. A feasibility study was conducted in pediatric patients with SCD at age 10 years or older and registered nurses. All participants were assessed for change in SCD-relevant knowledge and satisfaction post-gameplay. Providers were assessed for change in attitudes toward patients with SCD post-gameplay. Results: Twenty-five patients and 25 providers were enrolled. All participants (P < 0.001), and specifically within the patient (P = 0.019) and provider (P < 0.001) cohorts, showed increased SCD knowledge post-gameplay. Both patients and providers reported high satisfaction with GRAPES. Provider negative attitudes were reduced (P = 0.007) post-gameplay without change in positive attitudes (P = 0.959). Providers demonstrated post-gameplay reduced (P = 0.001) belief that patients’ changing behavior around providers indicates inappropriate drug-seeking behavior. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of the GRAPES tool as a potential digital, behavioral intervention to provide educational materials for patients and their providers in different clinical settings, improve knowledge about SCD, and decrease stigma against patients with SCD in the healthcare setting.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere29717
JournalPediatric Blood and Cancer
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Education
  • healthcare bias
  • sickle cell disease


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