The specificity of the cation-independent and -dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptors (CI-MPR and CD-MPR) for high mannose-type N-glycans of defined structure containing zero, one, or two Man-P-GlcNAc phosphodiester or Man-6-P phosphomonoester residues was determined by analysis on a phosphorylated glycan microarray. Amine-activated glycans were covalently printed on N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated glass slides and interrogated with different concentrations of recombinant CD-MPR or soluble CI-MPR. Neither receptor bound to non-phosphorylated glycans. The CD-MPR bound weakly or undetectably to the phosphodiester derivatives, but strongly to the phosphomonoester-containing glycans with the exception of a single Man7GlcNAc2-R isomer that contained a single Man-6-P residue. By contrast, the CI-MPR bound with high affinity to glycans containing either phospho-mono- or -diesters although, like the CD-MPR, it differentially recognized isomers of phosphorylated Man7GlcNAc2-R. This differential recognition of phosphorylated glycans by the CI- and CD-MPRs has implications for understanding the biosynthesis and targeting of lysosomal hydrolases.