Anion-exchange h.p.l.c. analysis of [3H]inositol phosphates derived from glucose-stimulated isolated pancreatic islets that had been prelabelled with myo-[3H]inositol revealed that the predominant inositol trisphosphate was the 1,3,4-isomer [Ins(1,3,4)P3]. The 1,4,5-isomer [Ins(1,4,5)P3] was also detectable, as was a more polar inositol phosphate with the chromatographic properties of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4]. Glucose-induced accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P3 was augmented by Li+ and occurred after maximal accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. These findings suggest a possible role for Ins(1,3,4)P3 or its probable precursor Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic islets.