Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) provides tissues with triglyceride-derived fatty acids. Fatty acids affect β-cell function, and LpL overexpression decreases insulin secretion in cell lines, but whether LpL is regulated in β-cells is unknown. To test the hypothesis that glucose and insulin regulate LpL activity in β-cells, we studied pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells. Acute exposure of β-cells to physiological concentrations of glucose stimulated both total cellular LpL activity and heparin-releasable LpL activity. Glucose had no effect on total LpL protein mass but instead promoted the appearance of LpL protein in a heparin-releasable fraction, suggesting that glucose stimulates the translocation of LpL from intracellular to extracellular sites in β-cells. The induction of heparin-releasable LpL activity was unaffected by treatment with diazoxide, an inhibitor of insulin exocytosis that does not alter glucose metabolism but was blocked by conditions that inhibit glucose metabolism. In vitro hyperinsulinemia had no effect on LpL activity in the presence of low concentrations of glucose but increased LpL activity in the presence of 20 mM glucose. Using dual-laser confocal microscopy, we detected intracellular LpL in vesicles distinct from those containing insulin. LpL was also detected at the cell surface and was displaced from this site by heparin in dispersed islets and INS-1 cells. These results show that glucose metabolism controls the trafficking of LpL activity in β-cells independent of insulin secretion. They suggest that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance may contribute to progressive β-cell dysfunction by increasing LpL-mediated delivery of lipid to islets.