Geometric assessment of regional left ventricular remodeling by three-dimensional echocardiographic shape analysis correlates with left ventricular function

Ivan S. Salgo, Wendy Tsang, William Ackerman, Homaa Ahmad, Sonal Chandra, Michael Cardinale, Roberto M. Lang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: Left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction derived from two-dimensional echocardiography are two measures of adverse LV remodeling, which predict survival in patients with systolic heart failure. However, the geometric assumptions and image foreshortening that can occur with two-dimensional echocardiography reduces measurement accuracy and thus predictive value. By its nature, three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography allows the entire LV shape to be studied, providing a methodology to examine LV remodeling through LV curvature on a global and regional scale. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in global and regional LV shape to LV ejection fraction. Methods: Full-volume, 3D transthoracic echocardiographic studies of the left ventricle were performed in 106 consecutive patients with either normal left ventricles (n = 59) or cardiomyopathies (n = 47). Customized software (QLAB) was used to extract segmented 3D LV endocardial shells at end-systole and end-diastole and to analyze these shells to determine global and regional LV shape analysis. Independent t tests were used for intergroup comparisons, and linear regression was used to correlate regional shape changes with systolic performance. Results: Derivation and analysis of the 3D LV shells was possible in all patients. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had significantly smaller curvature values, indicating rounder global LV shape throughout the cardiac cycle. Regional analysis identified a loss of septal and apical curvatures in these patients. Systolic apical mean curvature was well correlated with LV ejection fraction (r = 0.89). Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that regional remodeling measured by regional 3D LV curvature correlates well with LV function. As well, this methodology is independent of the geometric assumptions that limit the predictive value of two-dimensional echocardiographic measures of LV remodeling. Overall, this is a novel tool that may have applications in the assessment and prediction of outcomes of different forms of dilated cardiomyopathy.Echocardiography.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-88
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Left ventricular shape
  • Three-dimensional echocardiography


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