Approximately30%of patients with non-small cell lung cancer have the squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) histological subtype. Although targeted therapies have improved outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma, no agents are currently approved specifically for use in SQCC. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) recently published the results of comprehensive genomic analyses of tumor samples from 178 patients with SQCC of the lung. In this review, we briefly discuss key molecular aberrations reported by TCGA and other investigators and their potential therapeutic implications. Carefully designed preclinical and clinical studies based on these largescalegenomicanalyses are critical toimprovetheoutcomesof patients with SQCC of lung in the near future.