Genome-wide Association Study of Smoking Initiation and Current Smoking

Jacqueline M. Vink, August B. Smit, Eco J.C. de Geus, Patrick Sullivan, Gonneke Willemsen, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Johannes H. Smit, Witte J. Hoogendijk, Frans G. Zitman, Leena Peltonen, Jaakko Kaprio, Nancy L. Pedersen, Patrik K. Magnusson, Tim D. Spector, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Katherine I. Morley, Andrew C. Heath, Nicholas G. Martin, Rudi G.J. Westendorp, P. Eline SlagboomHenning Tiemeier, Albert Hofman, Andre G. Uitterlinden, Yurii S. Aulchenko, Najaf Amin, Cornelia van Duijn, Brenda W. Penninx, Dorret I. Boomsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations


For the identification of genes associated with smoking initiation and current smoking, genome-wide association analyses were carried out in 3497 subjects. Significant genes that replicated in three independent samples (n = 405, 5810, and 1648) were visualized into a biologically meaningful network showing cellular location and direct interaction of their proteins. Several interesting groups of proteins stood out, including glutamate receptors (e.g., GRIN2B, GRIN2A, GRIK2, GRM8), proteins involved in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling (e.g., NTRK2, GRB14), transporters (e.g., SLC1A2, SLC9A9) and cell-adhesion molecules (e.g., CDH23). We conclude that a network-based genome-wide association approach can identify genes influencing smoking behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-379
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican journal of human genetics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 13 2009


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