The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is higher after the total hip or knee replacement surgery than after almost any other surgical procedure; warfarin sodium is commonly prescribed to reduce this peri-operative risk. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window with high inter-individual dose variability and can cause hemorrhage. The genetics-informatics trial (GIFT) of warfarin to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a 2 × 2 factorial-design, randomized controlled trial designed to compare the safety and effectiveness of warfarin-dosing strategies. GIFT will answer two questions: (1) does pharmacogenetic (PGx) dosing reduce the rate of adverse events in orthopedic patients; and (2) is a lower target international normalized ratio (INR) non-inferior to a higher target INR in orthopedic participants? The composite primary endpoint of the trial is symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE (identified on screening ultrasonography), major hemorrhage, INR4, and death.
- dosing algorithm
- randomized controlled trial