Hydrocephalus is a neurological disorder with an incidence of 80-125 per 100,000 live births in the United States. The molecular pathogenesis of this multidimensional disorder is complex and has both genetic and environmental influences. This review aims to discuss the genetic and molecular alterations described in human hydrocephalus, from well-characterized, heritable forms of hydrocephalus (e.g., X-linked hydrocephalus from L1CAM variants) to those affecting cilia motility and other complex pathologies such as neural tube defects and Dandy-Walker syndrome. Ventricular zone disruption is one key pattern among congenital and acquired forms of hydrocephalus, with abnormalities in cadherins, which mediate neuroepithelium/ependymal cell junctions and contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of the disease. Given the relationship between hydrocephalus pathogenesis and neurodevelopment, future research should elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate ventricular zone integrity and stem cell biology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S264-S270
JournalNeurology India
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Cell junctions
  • genetics
  • hydrocephalus
  • inflammation
  • molecular biology
  • stem cells
  • ventricular zone disruption


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