High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most lethal histotype of ovarian cancer and the majority of cases present with metastasis and late-stage disease. Over the last few decades, the overall survival for patients has not significantly improved, and there are limited targeted treatment options. We aimed to better characterize the distinctions between primary and metastatic tumors based on short- or long-term survival. We characterized 39 matched primary and metastatic tumors by whole exome and RNA sequencing. Of these, 23 were short-term (ST) survivors (overall survival (OS) < 3.5 years) and 16 were long-term (LT) survivors (OS > 5 years). We compared somatic mutations, copy number alterations, mutational burden, differential gene expression, immune cell infiltration, and gene fusion predictions between the primary and metastatic tumors and between ST and LT survivor cohorts. There were few differences in RNA expression between paired primary and metastatic tumors, but significant differences between the transcriptomes of LT and ST survivors in both their primary and metastatic tumors. These findings will improve the understanding of the genetic variation in HGSC that exist between patients with different prognoses and better inform treatments by identifying new targets for drug development.