Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents and accounts for approximately 2% of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It is subcategorized into distinct subtypes based on histological features and fusion status (PAX-FOXO1/VGLL2/NCOA2). Despite advances in our understanding of the pathobiological and molecular landscape of RMS, the prognosis of these tumors has not significantly improved in recent years. Developing a better understanding of genetic abnormalities and risk stratification beyond the fusion status are crucial to developing better therapeutic strategies. Herein, we aim to highlight the genetic pathways/abnormalities involved, specifically in fusion-negative RMS, assess the currently available model systems to study RMS pathogenesis, and discuss available prognostic factors as well as their importance for risk stratification to achieve optimal therapeutic management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1500
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021


  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Fusion-negative RMS
  • Fusion-positive RMS
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma


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