Genetic and pharmacologic evidence that calcium-independent phospholipase A2β regulates virus-induced inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression by macrophages

Jason M. Moran, R. Mark L. Buller, Jane McHowat, John Turk, Mary Wohltmann, Richard W. Gross, John A. Corbett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Recent evidence supports a regulatory role for the calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in the antiviral response of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by macrophages. Because two mammalian isoforms of iPLA2 (iPLA2β and iPLA 2γ) have been cloned and characterized, the aim of this study was to identify the specific isoform(s) in macrophages that regulates the expression of iNOS in response to virus infection. Bromoenol lactone (BEL), a suicide substrate inhibitor of iPLA2, inhibits the activity of both isoforms at low micromolar concentrations. However, the R- and S-enantiomers of BEL display ∼10-fold greater potency for inhibition of the enzymatic activity of iPLA2γ and iPLA2β, respectively. In this study, we show that the iPLA2β-selective (S)-BEL inhibits encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)-induced iNOS expression, nitric oxide production, and iPLA2 enzymatic activity in macrophages in a concentration-related manner that closely resembles the inhibitory properties of racemic BEL. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is one downstream target of iPLA2 that is required for the transcriptional activation of iNOS in response to virus infection, and consistent with the effects of BEL enantiomers on iNOS expression, (S)-BEL more effectively inhibits EMCV-induced CREB phosphorylation than (R)-BEL in macrophages. Using macrophages isolated from iPLA2β-null mice, virus infection fails to stimulate iNOS mRNA accumulation and protein expression, thus providing genetic evidence that iPLA2β is required for EMCV-induced iNOS expression. These findings provide evidence for a signaling role for iPLA2β in virus-induced iNOS expression by macrophages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28162-28168
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume280
Issue number30
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 29 2005

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