Emerging data suggest intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the preterm neonate is a complex disorder with contributions from both the environment and the genome. Environmental analyses suggest factors mediating both cerebral blood flow and angiogenesis contribute to IVH, while candidate gene studies report variants in angiogenesis, inflammation, and vascular pathways. Gene-by-environment interactions demonstrate the interaction between the environment and the genome, and a non-replicated genome-wide association study suggests that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the risk for severe IVH in very low-birth weight preterm neonates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)592-603
Number of pages12
JournalSeminars in Perinatology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Dec 2015


  • GWAS
  • Genes
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Neonate
  • Preterm


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