The context of this review highlights current strategies being employed in gene therapy for neoplastic diseases. Three main approaches, mutation compensation, molecular chemotherapy, and genetic immunopotentiation, have been undertaken. Mutation compensation relies on strategies to ablate activated oncogenes or augment tumor-suppressor gene expression. Molecular chemotherapy uses delivery of a toxin gene to tumor cells for eradication. Genetic immunopotentiation augments the host immune response against tumor- associated antigens via delivery of immune stimulatory molecules or delivery of foreign genes. Rapid implementation of a variety of gene therapy strategies have been undertaken for human clinical trials.