Virtually all human psychological and behavioral traits are at least partially heritable. For nearly a century, classical genetic studies have sought to understand how genetic variation contributes to human variation in these traits. More recently, genome-wide association studies have identified large numbers of specific genetic variants linked with complex traits. Many of these variants fall outside of protein-coding genes, in putative gene regulatory elements. This suggests that some fraction of causal human genetic variation acts through gene regulation. New developments in the field of regulatory genomics offer resources and methods to understand how genetic variants that alter gene expression contribute to human psychology and risk for psychiatric disease.