Biologic research is experiencing a transformation brought about by the ability of programmable nucleases to manipulate the genome. In the recently developed CRISPR/Cas system, short RNA sequences guide the endonuclease Cas9 to any location in the genome, causing a DNA double-strand break (DSB). Repair of DSBs allows the introduction of targeted genetic manipulations with high precision. Cas9-mediated gene editing is simple, scalable, and rapid, and it can be applied to virtually any organism. Here, we summarize the development of modern gene editing techniques and the biology ofDSB repair onwhich these techniques are based.We discuss technical points in applying this technology and review its use inmodel organisms. Finally, we describe prospects for the use of gene editing to treat human genetic diseases. This technology offers tremendous promise for equipping the nephrology research community to better model and ultimately, treat kidney diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2940-2947
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2016


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