This chapter describes the epidemiology, causal organisms, disease presentation, and predisposing factors of common systemic mycoses, both opportunistic and endemic. Most fungal infections do not differ in their epidemiology, pathogenesis, or clinical manifestations between men and women. This chapter discusses some relevant gender-specific issues, such as genital tract infection, the effect of pregnancy on some fungal infections, and the use of antifungal agents in special situations. Antifungal agents can act on the cell membrane (polyenes, azoles, allylamines), cell wall (echinocandins), nuclear division (griseofulvin), or nucleic acid synthesis (5-FC). The chapter briefly describes currently available antifungal agents and discusses their use in special situations such as pregnancy. Antifungal treatment in pregnancy requires careful attention to risks and benefits of therapy as well as knowledge of the effect on mother and fetus.