Rationale and Objectives: Residency training often overlaps with prime childbearing years, yet variability in availability and duration of parental leave in residency can complicate the decision to become parents. Gender disparities in attitudes towards parenthood in residency is well recognized, with females generally reporting more concerns surrounding prolonged training, hindrance of future career plans, and negative perception from peers. However, gender of the department chair has not yet been examined as a factor influencing parental leave policies for residents in Radiology. Materials and Methods: The gender of the department chair and parental leave policies for residents in 209 ACGME accredited diagnostic radiology programs across the United States were procured from their websites. These programs were stratified into 6 geographical regions to identify regional differences. Chi-squared analyses were used to compare availability of paid parental benefits with the gender of department chairs. Results: Seventy-seven percent of diagnostic radiology program department chairs were male. 34 of 49 programs (69%) with female department chairs advertised paid parental benefits, compared to 61 of 160 programs (38%) chaired by males (P < 0.001). When stratified by region, this gender difference remained statistically significant in the mid-Atlantic and New England. Conclusion: Female gender of the department chair was associated with the increased availability of paid parental leave benefits for residents, yet females hold fewer academic leadership positions than males. Future discussions regarding parental leave policies for residents will have to consider the unique challenges in residency such as length of training and burden on coresidents.