BACKGROUND: Despite recent changes in women and underrepresented minorities in medicine, there still exists large gender and racial gaps in surgical training and leadership. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that gender and racial representation have improved among general and colorectal surgical trainees and leadership over the past 20 years. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examines gender and racial representation of general and colorectal surgery residents, colorectal faculty members, and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Executive Council. SETTINGS: We extracted data from the Journal of the American Medical Association Graduate Medical Education yearly reports for information on surgical residents. We used the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons website and publicly available practice websites to obtain information regarding colon and rectal surgery residents, faculty members, and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Executive Council. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We primarily focused on the gender and underrepresented minority breakdowns of general surgery residents, colorectal surgery residents, and the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Executive Council. RESULTS: We found that between 2001 and 2021, the number of women and people identifying as underrepresented minorities increased within general surgery programs. In addition, there has been a similar increase in underrepresented minorities and women entering colorectal surgery residency programs. Finally, there has been a steady, significant increase in women representation in the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Executive Council, with a slower increase in underrepresented minorities on the council. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by using previously collected data and relying on publicly available profiles for gender and race information. CONCLUSIONS: General and colon and rectal surgery have significantly increased gender and racial diversity at the training and leadership levels.